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【科技日報】雙中子星并合產生磁星預言證實

文章來源:科技日報 吳長鋒   發布時間:2019-04-12  【字號:     】  

  記者從中國科學技術大學獲悉,該校領銜的研究團隊觀測到了以前只存在于理論猜想中的新型X射線信號,在國際上首次證實了雙中子星并合直接產物可以是磁星。研究成果于11日在線發表在《自然》上。

  中子星幾乎全部由中子組成,具有超高密度、超強磁場等極端物理屬性。迄今為止,人們對于中子星自身基本屬性的認識還是相對模糊的。

  借助美國國家航空航天局的錢德拉空間望遠鏡所完成的當今世界上最深最靈敏的X射線巡天觀測——700萬秒錢德拉南天深場,中國科學技術大學薛永泉教授等人發現了一個持續約7小時的獨特X射線輻射信號,這個信號來自約66億光年外。各種關鍵觀測數據均表明,該信號極有可能源于雙中子星并合之后產生的磁星。

  主流的研究觀點認為雙中子星并合之后直接產物是黑洞。也有理論預言,雙中子星并合會產生新的特殊的中子星——磁星。

  磁星表面磁場比目前人類實驗室能制造出來的最強磁場還強上億倍。它具有超高的自轉速度。雙中子星并合會釋放強烈的引力波輻射,同時還會在周邊拋出大量物質。磁星具有強引力,快速吸入拋出物質,并在兩極方向產生一個只持續幾秒鐘的超高速、準直的噴流。假如噴流方向恰好對著地球,地球附近就能在短時間內探測到大量的高能量伽馬射線。同時,磁星還會產生持續時間較長的基本各向同性的X射線爆發,可在偏離噴流的方向被探測到。

  這一發現證實了雙中子星并合直接產物可以是大質量毫秒磁星,排除了一批核物質模型,明確了一系列關于中子星物態方程與極高磁場強度等基本物理特質。來自66億光年外的光輝,為未來的引力波探測和中子星研究照亮新的方向。

  (原載于《科技日報》 2019-04-12 01版)




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